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Lourdes no longer makes much of an effort to ensure that Moscow gets advance word of a surprise missile attack as it did in the days of the Reagan administration.

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It now has to try harder to grab faxes or emails that tell of U. The base, which fell on hard times in the early s, is now being upgraded. How well it is doing, of course, is a state secret. The history of Lourdes and U.

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And while the U. Which is worse, or does it matter? And how do you deal with a threat from a foreign government? Around the world, nation after nation is emulating Russia and the United States, using electronic eavesdropping to gather most of their intelligence, particularly economic and commercial data.

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The rapid growth of communications media, like satellites, cell phones and Internet, as well as the equally rapid growth of information that flows through those media, whether email, trade secrets, or blueprints make such spying both easier and more tempting. In addition to the nations of the U.

About 90 minutes after the eight Bs had taken off from Puerto Cabezas to attack Cuban airfields, another B departed on a deception flight that took it close to Cuba but headed north towards Florida. Like the bomber groups, it carried false FAR markings and the same number as painted on at least two of the others. Before departure, the cowling from one of the aircraft's two engines was removed by CIA personnel, fired upon, then re-installed to give the false appearance that the aircraft had taken ground fire at some point during its flight.

At a safe distance north of Cuba, the pilot feathered the engine with the pre-installed bullet holes in the cowling, radioed a mayday call, and requested immediate permission to land at Miami International airport. He landed and taxied to the military area of the airport near an Air Force C and was met by several government cars. The next day he was granted political asylum, and that night he returned to Puerto Cabezas via Opa-Locka.

President Kennedy supported the statement made by Stevenson: "I have emphasized before that this was a struggle of Cuban patriots against a Cuban dictator. While we could not be expected to hide our sympathies, we made it repeatedly clear that the armed forces of this country would not intervene in any way". On 15 April, the Cuban national police, led by Efigenio Ameijeiras , started the process of arresting thousands of suspected anti-revolutionary individuals, and detaining them in provisional locations such as the Karl Marx Theatre, the moat of Fortaleza de la Cabana and the Principe Castle all in Havana, and the baseball park in Matanzas.

Leonel Martinez and three others took to the countryside. Following the air strikes on the Cuban airfields on 15 April , the FAR managed to prepare for armed action with its surviving air force which numbered at least four Ts jet trainers, four Sea Furies fighters and five or six B medium bombers.

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All three types were armed with machine guns a 20mm cannon, in the case of the Sea Furies for air-to-air combat and for strafing of ships and ground targets. The three types could also carry bombs and rocket pods for attacks against ships and tanks. No additional air strikes against Cuban airfields and aircraft were specifically planned before 17 April, because B pilots' exaggerated claims gave the CIA false confidence in the success of 15 April attacks, until U-2 reconnaissance photos taken on 16 April showed otherwise.

Late on 16 April, President Kennedy ordered cancellation of further airfield strikes planned for dawn on 17 April, to attempt plausible deniability of US direct involvement. The fifth freighter, Lake Charles , was loaded with follow-up supplies and some Operation 40 infiltration personnel. The freighters sailed under Liberian ensigns. US Navy Task Group San Marcos had sailed from Vieques Island.

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  • A flotilla containing equipment that broadcast sounds and other effects of a shipborne invasion landing provided the source of Cuban reports that briefly lured Fidel Castro away from the Bay of Pigs battlefront area. As the frogmen came in, they were shocked to discover that the Red Beach was lit with floodlights, which led to the location of the landing being hastily changed. At about , south of Playa Larga, Houston was damaged by several bombs and rockets from a Sea Fury and a T, and about two hours later captain Luis Morse intentionally beached it on the western side of the bay.

    The loss of Houston was a great blow to the brigadistas as that ship was carrying much of the Brigade 's medical supplies, which meant that wounded brigadistas had to make do with inadequate medical care. Brigade 's M41 Walker Bulldog tanks had all landed by am at Blue Beach and all of the troops by am. At about , five C and one C transport aircraft dropped paratroops from the parachute battalion of Brigade in an action code-named Operation Falcon.

    By , Cuban troops and militia from outside the area had started arriving at the Central Australia sugar mill, Covadonga and Yaguaramas. Throughout the day they were reinforced by more troops, heavy armour and T tanks typically carried on flat-bed trucks. At about , Premier Fidel Castro issued a statement over Cuba's nationwide network saying that the invaders, members of the exiled Cuban revolutionary front, have come to destroy the revolution and take away the dignity and rights of men.

    At about noon, a FAR B exploded due to heavy anti-aircraft fire from Blagar , and pilot Luis Silva Tablada on his second sortie and his crew of three were lost. By noon, hundreds of Cuban militia cadets from Matanzas had secured Palpite and cautiously advanced on foot south towards Playa Larga, suffering many casualties during attacks by FAL Bs. In October , the remains of the B and its two crew were found in the dense jungle in Nicaragua. Two other Bs had aborted the mission after take-off. During the night of 17—18 April, the force at Red Beach came under repeated counter-attacks from the Cuban Army and militia.

    This sharp action drop back the brigadistas. During the day, Brigade forces retreated to San Blas along the two roads from Covadonga and Yaguaramas. At , President Kennedy received a telegram from Nikita Khrushchev in Moscow, stating the Russians would not allow the US to enter Cuba, and implied swift nuclear retribution to the United States heartland if their warnings were not heeded. The vehicles, loaded with civilians, militia, police, and soldiers, were attacked with bombs, napalm , and rockets, suffering heavy casualties. The six Bs were piloted by two CIA contract pilots plus four pilots and six navigators from Brigade air force.

    Sorties were flown to reassure Brigade soldiers and pilots, and to intimidate Cuban government forces without directly engaging in acts of war. From 19 April until about 22 April, sorties were flown by A4D-2Ns to obtain visual intelligence over combat areas. Ray, Leo F. Baker, Riley W. Shamburger, and Wade C.

    The final toll in Cuban armed forces during the conflict was killed in action. In , the National Security Archive , under the Freedom of Information Act , released over pages of documents. One detail within these documents was incidents of friendly fire.

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    • The CIA had outfitted some B bombers to appear as Cuban aircraft, having ordered them to remain inland to avoid being fired upon by American-backed forces. Some of the planes, not heeding the warning, came under fire. We ended up shooting at two or three of them. We hit some of them there because when they came at us…it was a silhouette, that was all you could see.

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      McNair and Howard F. Anderson were executed in Pinar del Rio province, after a two-day trial. Between April and October , hundreds of executions took place in response to the invasion. Lopez, as well as underground students Virgilio Campaneria, Alberto Tapia Ruano, and more than one hundred other insurgents were executed. About 1, members of Brigade were captured, of whom nine died from asphyxiation during transfer to Havana in a closed truck. Five were executed and nine others imprisoned for 30 years. On 7 April , all were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

      On 14 April , 60 wounded and sick prisoners were freed and transported to the US. Donovan , a US lawyer aided by Milan C. On 24 December , some prisoners were flown to Miami, others following on the ship African Pilot , plus about 1, family members also allowed to leave Cuba. The failed invasion severely embarrassed the Kennedy administration , and made Castro wary of future US intervention in Cuba. On 21 April, in a State Department press conference, President Kennedy said: "There's an old saying that victory has a hundred fathers and defeat is an orphan Further statements, detailed discussions, are not to conceal responsibility because I'm the responsible officer of the Government The initial U.

      Ambassador Adlai Stevenson denied any involvement in the first wave of air strikes, stating before the United Nations, "These charges are totally false and I deny them categorically. Goodwin , a secretary of the White House.