This is the case of Equatorial Guinea, whose writers, many of them in exile, use their works to raise both national and international awareness about the miserable conditions of a people suffering the consequences of colonialism and two dictatorships. We understand his blog as the author's effort to write political essay, a genre with a longstanding tradition, benefitting from the advantages the new media and communication tools provide. As we argue in this thesis, the author uses Western literary genres that also surfaced in times of deep social and political crisis, to protest against poverty, corruption and abuse of authority, and to denounce hypocrisy and the persistence of colonial and neocolonial structures in Equatorial Guinea.
Visual document by Parriego Visual 1 edition published in and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Alternative Names. There are also libraries specialized in Hispanic matter, including ones at Tulane University, New Orleans. The history of Hispanism in Russia —before, during, and after the Soviet period—is long and deep, and it even survived the rupture of relations between Russia and Spain caused by the Spanish Civil War.
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This history started in the 18th century, and in the 19th century the influence of Cervantes on realist novelists such as Dostoyevsky , Turgenev , and Tolstoy was profound. Romantic travellers, such as Sergei Sobolevski , accumulated great libraries of books in Spanish and helped Spanish writers who visited Russia, such as Juan Valera. The field of Spanish-American studies has undergone a great increase recently. A survey in revealed that there are at least four thousand students of Spanish in Russian universities. According to one estimate, more than Poles made the pilgrimage during that era.
The Society of Jesus was active in Poland, promoting not only Spanish ideas of theology, but also Spanish theater, which they considered a teaching tool. In the 17th century, the Polish nobleman Jakub Sobieski made the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela and wrote an account of his journey. Felix Rozanski , Edward Porebowicz and Zygmunt Czerny were enthusiastic translators who taught in Poland at that time.
In the first professorship of Hispanic Studies not subordinate to a department of Romance literature was created at the University of Warsaw , and in the following year a degree program in Hispanic Studies was instituted there. Those who have taught in it include Urszula Aszyk-Bangs, M. Grzegorz Bak studied the image of Spain in 19th-century Polish literature. The integration of Brazil into Mercosur in created a need for closer relations between Brazil and the Hispanic world, as well as better knowledge of the Spanish language within Brazil. For this reason, Brazil has promoted the inclusion of Spanish as a required subject in the country's education system.
In the first Congresso Brasileiro de Hispanistas took place, and its proceedings were published under the title Hispanismo The organization's second congress took place in , and since then it has been held every two years. Compared to Brazil, Portugal has shown less interest in Hispanism; it was not until that a national association for it was founded. Portuguese activities in this field are mostly of a comparatist nature and focus on Luso-Spanish topics, partly because of academic and administrative reasons.
Portuguese Hispanism appears somewhat limited, and to an extent there is a mutual distrust between the two cultures, motivated by a history of conflicts and rivalry. The cultural relationship between Spain and Italy developed early in the Middle Ages, especially centered in Naples through the relation that it had with the Crown of Aragon and Sicily, and intensified during the Spanish Pre-Renaissance and Renaissance through Castile. Garcilaso de la Vega engaged members of the Accademia Pontaniana and introduced the Petrarchian metrical style and themes to Spanish lyric poetry.
This close relation extended throughout the periods of Mannerism and the Baroque in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 18th century the poet Giambattista Conti — was perhaps the foremost Spanish scholar, translator and anthologist of Europe. Dramatist, critic, and theater historiographer Pietro Napoli Signorelli — defended Spanish literature against critics such as Girolamo Tiraboschi and Saverio Bettinelli , who accused it of "bad taste", "corruption", and "barbarism".
Giacomo Casanova and Giuseppe Baretti traveled throughout Spain, leaving interesting descriptions of their experiences: Baretti was fluent in Spanish.
In the 19th century, Italian Romanticism took great interest in the Spanish romancero , with translations by Giovanni Berchet in and Pietro Monti in Edmondo de Amicis traveled throughout Spain and wrote a book of his impressions. Antonio Restori — , a professor at the Universities of Messina and of Genoa, published some works of Lope de Vega and dedicated his Saggi di bibliografia teatrale spagnuola to the bibliography of the Spanish theater; he also wrote Il Cid, studio storico-critico and Le gesta del Cid Bernardo Sanvisenti , a professor of Spanish language and literature at the University of Milan, wrote Manuale di letteratura spagnuola , as well as a study on the influence of Boccaccio , Dante and Petrarch in Spanish literature.
Italian Hispanism arose from three sources, already identifiable in the 19th century. The first of these was the Spanish hegemonic presence in the Italian peninsula, which sparked interest in the study of Spain and in the creation of works about Spain. Secondly, Italian Hispanism was encouraged by a comparatist approach, and in fact the first Italian studies on literature in Spanish were of a comparative nature, such as Benedetto Croce 's La Spagna nella vita italiana durante la Rinascenza and the works of Arturo Farinelli and Bernardino Sanvisenti, which were dedicated to the relationships between Spain and Italy, Italy and Germany, and Spain and Germany.
Cesare de Lollis also made important contributions to Cervantes studies.
Jawaharlal Nehru University Centre of Spanish Studies [WorldCat Identities]
Eventually Spanish-American studies emerged as an area of independent of the literature of Spain. Between and the first professorships of Spanish-American language and literature were created, pioneered by Giovanni Meo Zilio, who occupied the first chair of that sort created at the University of Florence in At the time of its founding in , the modern state of Israel already included a substantial Spanish-speaking community. Their language, Judeo-Spanish , was derived from Old Spanish along a path of development that diverged from that of the Spanish of Spain and its empire, beginning in , when the Jews were expelled from Spain.
Between the 16th and 20th centuries many of them lived in the old Ottoman Empire and North Africa. There are some , speakers of Judeo-Spanish in Israel today. At present there are several Israeli media outlets in standard Castilian Spanish, some of which have a long history.
The newsweekly Aurora , for example, was founded in the late s, and today it also has an online edition. Israel has at least three radio stations that broadcast in Spanish. The historian Yosef Kaplan has written numerous works and has translated Isaac Cardoso 's Las excelencias y calumnias de los hebreos into Hebrew.
Arabic-speaking Moorish kingdoms were present in Spain until , when the Reconquista defeated the Emirate of Granada. Many Moors remained in Spain until their final expulsion in The Moroccan historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari c.
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The Egyptian poet Ahmed Shawqi — spent six years of exile in Andalusia. Perhaps the first "scientific" Arab Hispanist was the Lebanese writer Shakib Arslan — , who wrote a book about his trips to Spain in three volumes. The Egyptian writer Taha Husayn — promoted the renewal of relations with Spain, among other European countries of the Mediterranean, and led the creation of an edition of the great 12th-century Andalusian literary encyclopedia Al-Dajira , of Ibn Bassam.
In spite of a bitter war between Spain and the United Provinces in the late 16th century, Hispanism has deep roots in the Netherlands. The influence of Spanish Golden Age literature can be seen in the work of the Dutch poet and playwright Gerbrand Bredero and in the translations of Guilliam de Bay in the 17th century. Nineteenth-century Romanticism aroused Dutch curiosity about the exoticism of things Spanish. A few years later, the Dutch scholar Fonger de Haan — held the chair of Spanish literature at Boston University. In he tried in vain to spark the interest of the State University of Groningen in Hispanic Studies, but nevertheless donated his library of Hispanic Studies to it a few years later.
Serious studies of literature gained new impetus thanks to the work of Jan te Winkel of the University of Amsterdam who, with his seven-volume De Ontwikkelingsgang der Nederlandsche Letterkunde — , drew attention to the influence that Spanish literature exerted on Dutch literature in the 17th century. Other researchers, such as William Davids , Joseph Vles and Simon Vosters , continued in the same direction as te Winkel. Jean Jacques Salverda de Grave — became a professor of Romance philology at the University of Groningen in , and he was succeeded by Kornelis Sneyders de Vogel — in Since then many such dictionaries have been published, including one by C.
Barrau and another by S. Doctor W. Along with C. Van Dam, he founded the Nederlandsch Zuid-Amerikaansch Instituut in order to promote commercial and cultural contact between both worlds. The Groningen poet Hendrik de Vries — travelled twelve times to Spain between and and—although his father, an eminent philologist and polyglot, always refused to study Spanish because of the Eighty Years' War —the poet dedicated his book of poems Iberia to Spain.
Johan Brouwer, who wrote his thesis on Spanish mysticism, produced twenty-two books on Spanish subjects, as well as numerous translations. Jonas Andries van Prague , a professor at Groningen, studied Spanish Golden Age theater in the Netherlands and the Generation of '98 , as well as the Sephardic refugee writers in the Netherlands. Cees Nooteboom has written books about travel to Spain, including Roads to Santiago. Don Quixote was translated into Danish — by Charlotte Dorothea Biehl , who also translated Cervantes's Novelas ejemplares — Hans Christian Andersen made a trip to Spain and kept a diary about his experiences.
In Finland , at the beginning of the 20th century there was an important group of Hispanists in Helsinki , including Oiva J. Tallgren —; he adopted the surname Tuulio in ; his wife Tyyni Tuulio — ; Eero K. Alexandru Popescu-Telega — wrote a book on Unamuno , a comparison between Romanian and Spanish folklore , a biography of Cervantes , a translation from the romancero , a book on Hispanic Studies in Romania , and an anthology in Romanian.
Hispanism in Asia and the Pacific is mostly related to the literature and languages of the Philippines , where Spanish has a history as a colonial language. In a million Filipinos spoke Spanish as their mother tongue; estimates of the number of Filipinos whose first language is Spanish today vary widely, ranging from 2, to over , Spanish remains alive in some creole languages , such as Chabacano.
In Manila , the Cervantes Institute has given Spanish classes for years, and the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language is involved in the teaching and standard use of Spanish in the Philippines. But there is no institution or association that brings together and defends the interests of Hispanic Filipinos themselves. Molina not the composer Antonio J.
Meanwhile, the Osaka University of Foreign Studies established Hispanic Studies in its curriculum in , but most university Hispanic Studies departments were founded in the s and '80s. Translations of Don Quixote into Japanese are at first incomplete and by way of an English version e. Japanese versions of Don Quixote in its entirety—although still based on an English translation—were published in by Hogetsu Shimamura and Noburu Katakami and in —28 by Morita.
In , Hirosada Nagata published a nearly-complete direct from the Spanish Japanese translation. It fell to Nagata's student, Masatake Takahashi — , to complete that translation published in Meanwhile, an entire, direct Japanese translation of Don Quixote was also produced the two parts in and by Yu Aida  — Spanish education in Korea has continued for the past fifty years, and there is currently a strong demand for it.
Since , Spanish has been an optional language in secondary education. It also publishes the journal Hispanic Studies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world. For advocacy of Hispanic nationalism, see Hispanismo. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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